Daily Archives: December 1, 2014

21st Century Strategic Management – Revisited

In the fall of 2010, in a series of posts about Strategic Planning, I stated that the Strategic Plan was essential to the survival of a 21st Century Library. In my original 21st Century Strategic Management posts I noted that while leaders provide the vision and inspiration, managers provide the means and capability.

All organizations consist of leadership and management positions. Leaders are always directly responsible for the success or failure of the organization, but generally managers are not, even though their role is critical to the implementation of the vision and strategy of the organization. Implementation is essential, because as Morris Chang stated:

Leadership and management are the two sides of the same coin in terms of accomplishing the 21st Century Library’s Goals and Objectives. Libraries are organized with leaders, managers and staff positions. And while every library is different in terms of the number of staff and types of positions in its organization, every library is the same in terms of those who establish the mission, goals and objectives, and those who support them by providing the means and capability to accomplish the mission.

What is leadership?
A definition of leader that I have used for many years is; A person, who by force of example, talents, and/or qualities of character plays a directing role, wields commanding influence or has followers in any sphere of activity or thought.

In contrast, a definition of a manager is; A person who conducts, directs or supervises activities, especially the executive functions of planning, organizing, coordinating, directing, controlling and supervising of any business type project or activity with responsibility for results.

“Managers are people who do things right, and leaders are people who do the right things.”
Warren Bennis & Burt Nanus, Leaders


“So much of what we call management consists in making it difficult for people to work.”
Peter Drucker

Leadership and management are not mutually exclusive. A person can be both, and managers, like directors, should use leadership to accomplish their managerial mission. Effective managers are ones who do not make the work environment “difficult for people to work.” Highly effective managers are ones who understand the principles of management and strive to develop work teams, as opposed to work groups, in order to accomplish the organization’s mission.


This is where “strategic management” comes in.

Strategic management is a field that deals with the major intended and emergent initiatives taken by general managers [library managers] on behalf of owners [directors, boards and jurisdictions], involving utilization of resources, to enhance the performance of firms [libraries] in their external environments. It entails specifying the organization’s mission, vision and objectives, developing policies and plans, often in terms of projects and programs, which are designed to achieve these objectives, and then allocating resources to implement the policies and plans, projects and programs.

Strategic management is a level of managerial activity under setting goals and over Tactics. … In the field of business administration it is useful to talk about “strategic alignment” between the organization and its environment or “strategic consistency.” According to Arieu (2007), “there is strategic consistency when the actions of an organization are consistent with the expectations of management, and these in turn are with the market and the context.” [Wikipedia]

Where many libraries are lagging behind other types of organizations that are thriving is in understanding the “strategic alignment” between the organization and this 21st Century environment, therefore they have no “strategic consistency.” Many library jurisdictions, boards, directors, and staff are still in the “library on as usual” mindset, even though they may have established a 21st Century mission and vision. They have missed the fact that both the external and internal environment have changed – dramatically! Their missions, goals and objectives may have changed on paper, but their practices and performance are NOT consistent “with the market and the context.”

There are few things more difficult to accomplish than communicating the vision of the library to every employee, and having them change their practices to align with the vision.  If they understand and embrace the vision, they may not know how to translate that into practice, until they receive guidance from managers who understand “strategic management” and implement it by “developing policies and plans…, which are designed to achieve these objectives, and then allocating resources to implement the policies and plans, projects and programs.”

The renown management theorist Peter Drucker stated; “There is nothing more wasteful than becoming highly efficient at doing the wrong thing.” This concept is fundamental to the principals that drive a strategic plan, a strategic vision, and strategic management of a 21st Century Library. While libraries are extremely skilled at being “libraries”, they have yet to understand that what they “do” is what they are. So, unless they more effectively provide information to a 21st Century citizenry through their daily practices, they are failing to align their practices with their vision.

A 21st Century Library is successful at doing the right thing – providing the information needs of its 21st Century users. It accomplishes this through strategic management of its goals and objectives and practices that provide the means and capability to succeed.

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